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INFORMAÇÕES:

SABIÁ-PRETO
Turdus flavipes (Vieillot, 1818)

Família: Muscicapidae
Subfamília: Turdinae

Foto : Germano Woehl Jr.
Local: RPPN SANTUÁRIO RÃ-BUGIO - GUARAMIRIM - SC
Data: 23/07/2016


AMEAÇAS:
É uma espécie florestal  e, portanto, sofre ameaça de perda de hábitat causada pelos desmatamentos constantes que ocorrem no que ainda resta da Mata Atlântica. 

DESCRIÇÃO:
Tamanho aproximado: 20,5 cm. O macho é preto e cinzento e tem o bico, pálpebras e pés amarelos. A fêmea é pardo-oliváceo escuro, com a parte de baixo do corpo mais clara e a garganta rajada de pardo, a barriga esbranquiçada, as pálpebras e pés amarelados. Vive em florestas de áreas litorâneas e montanhas. 

ALIMENTAÇÃO:
Onívoro: alimenta-se do fruto de uma variedade de plantas, dentre elas a embaúba, erva-de-passarinho, amoras, e mirtáceas. Come coquinhos do palmito, cuspindo os caroços contribuindo assim para a dispersão dessa espécie. Também se alimenta de artrópodes. 

REPRODUÇÃO:
O colorido amarelo do bico do macho é característico da época da reprodução, pois no período de repouso sexual torna-se manchado de negro. O ninho tem paredes espessas e formato de tigela funda. È construído pela fêmea com folhas secas, raízes e fibras vegetais entrelaçadas. A incubação dos ovos dura de 12 a 14 dias e o casal alimenta os filhotes por 17 dias. 

REFERÊNCIAS:
 
*Höfling, E. & Camargo, H.F. de A., 1993. Aves no campus. São Paulo, Instituto de Biociências da USP. 
* Sick, H. 1997. Ornitologia Brasileira. Ed. Nova Fronteira. Rio de Janeiro-RJ. 


VÍDEOS:  

Sabiá-preto se alimentando dos frutos do palmiteiro (palmito). Após apanhar os frutos, as sementes são regurgitadas bem distantes do palmiteiro. Assim, o sabiá-preto planta milhares de palmiteiros.

 

REGURGITANDO SEMENTE DE PALMITO

 






OBSERVAÇÕES:

Sobre a alteração do nome do gênero desta espécie: Platycichla --> Turdus

Proposal (#247) to South American Classification Committee

Eliminate the genus Platycichla and place P. leucops and P. flavipes in Turdus 
http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCprop247.html


Background: Systematists have long questioned whether the thrush genus Platycichla should be recognized as distinct with respect to the large and cosmopolitan genus Turdus. For example, Ridgely and Tudor (1989) noted that Platycichla was named solely because it is smaller than most Turdus, and suggested that the two genera should probably be merged considering their similarities in plumage, vocalizations, and behavior.

New data and analysis: Two recent phylogenetic studies based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data demonstrate conclusively that Platycichla is nested within the genus Turdus, implying the two genera should be merged in order to make Turdus monophyletic. Based on complete cyt b and ND2 sequences, Klicka et al. (2005) found that Turdus is paraphyletic but forms a well supported clade with the addition of three mostly monotypic genera (Platycichla, Nesocichla, and Cichlherminia). Although Platycichla was clearly found to be nested within Turdus, its exact phylogenetic position was not determined owing to sparse taxon sampling; in addition, only one of its constituent species (P. leucops) was sampled. Voelker et al. (2006) presented analyses of cyt b, ND2, and ND3 sequences with much more complete taxon sampling: they included 60 of the 65 species of Turdus, in addition to the two species of Platycichla, and several other thrush genera whose systematic position had been contentious. Their results confirmed those of Klicka et al., showing that Turdus is not monophyletic with respect to Platycichla: the two species in the latter genus are part of a well-supported clade formed by mostly South American Turdus taxa. Voelker et al. further showed that the two species of Platycichla are not each other's closest relatives; a tree forcing the monophyly of the genus was significantly less likely than unconstrained trees. The latter result is consistent with differences in nesting biology between the two species noted by Londoño (2005).

Recommendation: I believe the available data leave no doubt that Platyicichla is not a distinct genus with respect to Turdus and that it is not even a monophlyetic group. Thus, I recommend a YES vote to get rid of Platycichla and to rename its two constituent species as Turdus leucops and T. flavipes. (Because Turdus has priority over Platycichla, the latter genus needs to be eliminated.)

References

Klicka, J., G. Voelker, & G. M. Spellman. 2005. A molecular systematic revision of the "true thrushes" (Turdinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34: 486-500.

Londoño, G.A., 2005. A description of the nest and eggs of the Pale-eyed Thrush (Platycichla leucops), with notes on incubation behavior. Wilson Bulletin 117: 394-399.

Voelker, G., S. Rohwer, R. C. K. Bowie & D. C. Outlaw. 2007. Molecular systematics of a speciose, cosmopolitan songbird genus: defining the limits of, and relationships among, the Turdus thrushes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42: 422-434.



C. Daniel Cadena, November 2006
 
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